What is art and science in nursing

Nursing science

English: nursing science

1 definition

The Nursing science deals with the methodical collection, description and arrangement of knowledge about care. The findings come from various areas of knowledge:

  • ethics
  • Personal knowledge
  • Empirical knowledge (the scientifically proven area of ​​nursing)
  • Intuition (the "art" of caring)

These four areas are related to each other. The interaction creates the knowledge that forms the basis of nursing activities.

2 background

Nursing science provides scientific knowledge that is used in nursing and care for the elderly. Therefore, nursing science is also referred to as a science with a theory of action or as a science of action or practical science.

From this it can be seen that the central element of nursing science is “nursing practice”. That means: In practice, the subject of care is recognizable and new care knowledge is continuously developed. Van Maanen defines 3 essential elements of nursing science:

  • Empirical knowledge: what we learn from the patient
  • Theoretical knowledge: what we understand from patient conditions
  • Research results: what we work out with patients in studies

3 story

The academization of nursing science took place in the USA at the beginning of this century. Nursing science also has a relatively long tradition in Asia and other European countries. The first attempts to establish nursing science in West Germany were made in Heidelberg after World War II. Another attempt was started at the FU in Berlin in 1981. For a long time the development was marked by relative unsuccessfulness. In the GDR, the development was faster and was, however, strongly pedagogical, didactic and medical-scientific. At the beginning of the 1980s, nursing science received new impulses from the Anglo-American region, which led to numerous research projects.

Despite great resistance, there were foundations and institutions that supported the development and thereby made a significant contribution to the breakthrough of the nursing sciences in Germany. A recommended source is the memorandum of the Robert Bosch Foundation.

There has been a strong upswing in nursing courses since the 1990s. There is a wide network of courses, some of which have different names:

  • Care management
  • Nursing education
  • Nursing science
  • Medical education
  • Bachelor of Nursing etc.

4 deficits

In an international comparison, Germany has a lot of catching up to do. The academic offer is currently like a colorful cake plate that lacks a uniform overall contour.

One problem is that development processes are "repeated" instead of benefiting from the experience of more developed countries. Above all, however, there is a lack of uniform guidelines and standards for the study of nursing sciences, as are common in other scientific areas (e.g. medicine, psychology).

There is also the risk of the subject being deformed where the nursing sciences are embedded outside the subject. This applies, for example, to courses at universities of applied sciences for social pedagogy, where the pedagogical component of nursing science is usually overemphasized.

Nursing science is often poorly represented at universities. For example, postgraduate programs are offered abroad that are not available in Germany. As a result, young scientists in this area are largely lost. Nursing research in Germany is mainly a student company and takes place mainly in the context of diploma theses and dissertations.

5 measures

Possible measures to improve the situation are:

  • Establishment of nursing science as an independent department
  • Recognition as a scientific "discipline" at large universities
  • Improvement of postgraduate programs.
  • Better financial support from the public sector
  • Constant exchange of knowledge between theory and practice
  • Improved public presence
  • Setting professionally recognized standards
  • Use the knowledge of more advanced countries

6 web links

  • Nursing Science Journal: [1]
  • Profile of the Nursing Faculty Vallendar [2]
  • Online portal for attractive work in nursing [3]
  • German Society for Nursing Science e.V. [4]
  • Institute for Health and Nursing Science: [5]