How were the boundaries between nations determined
UN and terrorism
In 1992, the UN Security Council classified terrorism with Resolution 731 (1992) for the first time as a threat to world peace. Terrorism is condemned in general and regardless of its motives. After the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001 in the USA, the Security Council stepped up its efforts in the fight against terrorism and imposed far-reaching obligations on the member states. For example, under Resolution 1373 (2001), they were obliged, among other things, to freeze terrorists' assets, deny them refuge and prosecute them. In order to monitor the implementation of these provisions by the member states, the Security Council set up the Committee on Combating Terrorism as a subsidiary body. As early as 1999, he created the Al-Qaeda Sanctions Committee, which is responsible for individual sanctions against suspected terrorists. In 2015, the sanctions list was supplemented by resolution 2253 to include the "Islamic State" (ISIS). The 1556 Working Group is examining possible measures against those who engage in terrorist activities. The 1540 committee is entrusted with prohibiting the transfer of weapons to non-state actors.
Since 1963, the United Nations and its specialized agencies have adopted 13 international conventions and three protocols to combat terrorism. The General Assembly's ad hoc committee, formed in 1996, is entrusted with drafting conventions and is to pursue the drafting of a comprehensive convention on international terrorism. Various UN offices support the UN member states in fulfilling the obligations set out in the international agreements and the Security Council resolutions.
A major achievement is the United Nations Global Strategy to Combat Terrorism, unanimously adopted by the General Assembly in 2006. It stands for the consensus of the international community and emphasizes respect for human rights and the rule of law in the fight against terrorism. The aim of the strategy is a joint approach by the UN and a framework that bundles the activities of various actors in the UN system. The implementation of the strategy is coordinated by the United Nations Counter-Terrorism Task Force set up by the UN Secretary General in 2005.
The United Nations' anti-terrorism policy has a high level of legitimacy. However, some measures were not without criticism. In particular, concerns from a human rights perspective have been expressed against the individual sanctions imposed by the Security Council in the context of the "Consolidated List". In principle, however, the United Nations pays great attention to respect for human rights in the fight against terrorism. In 2005, the UN Human Rights Council established the office of Special Rapporteur on the Promotion and Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms in Combating Terrorism. This reports to the Human Rights Council and the General Assembly, gathers information and makes specific recommendations.
The problem with the UN's fight against terrorism remained that the UN member states could never agree on an international definition of terrorism. The causes are primarily political; For example, the question arises as to where the line is to be drawn between a terrorist group and a legitimate liberation movement. This means that a definition ultimately lies with the states themselves, and they can, in principle, declare domestic political opponents to be terrorists. Against the background of a lack of specific definition, terrorism is now defined as a method of using force. In a speech to the General Assembly on November 8, 2001, the former UN Secretary General Kofi Annan emphasized: "The only common denominator among the various forms of terrorism is the calculated use of deadly force against civilians for political reasons."
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- How were the boundaries between nations determined