Why saturated hydrocarbons are harmful to health

Hydrocarbons (HC)
Significant emission reductions and minor importance of the transport sector.

In the following, the environmental impacts and emissions of hydrocarbons in Austria, Germany and the EU27 are discussed.

Environmental impact:

The unburned hydrocarbons are a group of substances made up of a wide variety of carbon and hydrogen compounds. In principle, a distinction is made between saturated (group of alkanes: for example methane CH4, ethane C2H6, propane C3H8) and unsaturated (group of alkenes - formerly olefins, alkynes and aromatics or arenes: for example ethene C2H4, ethyne C2H2, benzene C6H6) hydrocarbons. A further differentiation is the breakdown into chain-shaped or ring-shaped hydrocarbons. Depending on the chemical compound, there are different effects on people and the environment. HC arises from incomplete oxidation (combustion). [1]

Effects on the environment:
HC contributes to the photochemical formation of ground-level ozone, as it, together with other reactive partners, causes the oxidation of NO to NO without ozone depletion (O3) within several complex reaction steps. [2]

The gas methane, which belongs to the group of unburned hydrocarbons, is considered a greenhouse gas and is classified as 25 times as effective as CO2. [3]

Effects on humans:

Depending on the compound, aromatic HC in particular are known to have carcinogenic properties; others do not have any harmful effects. [4] The hydrocarbon benzene is classified as particularly hazardous to health because it can lead to bone marrow damage, leukemia and lymph gland cancer and there is no known threshold below which no damage will occur. [5]

Development and forecast of road traffic emissions:

A picture similar to that of CO emissions emerges for the development of hydrocarbon emissions. The HC emissions are also primarily determined by the gasoline engines. Accordingly, from the introduction of the three-way catalytic converters, an extensive reduction took place.


AUSTRIA:

The picture that emerges for car traffic in Austria is inillustration 1shown. In the period from 1990 to 2030, a 95.9% reduction in HC emissions will be achieved. The reduction in emissions primarily achieved by gasoline engines leads to the increasing importance of the diesel engine. The share of emissions will increase from 1% in 1990 to 39.9% in 2030.

Figure 1: Development and forecast of car HC emissions in Austria in kt / a

The falling stock of light petrol commercial vehicles is significantly reducing emissions in the commercial vehicle sector. How Figure 2 However, it can be seen that the legal measures are not sufficient to further reduce the already very low level of emissions from 2010 onwards. The increasing number of commercial vehicles and the increasing number of kilometers driven lead to a slight increase in HC emissions, so that in 2030 the level of emissions is only 66.6% lower than in 1990. At 2 kt in 2030, however, emissions are at a very low level in absolute terms. The drop in emissions in 2009 resulted from taking into account the effects of the economic crisis.

Figure 2: and forecast of commercial vehicle HC emissions in Austria in kt / a

The in Figure 3 The sector comparison shown for Austria confirms the decrease in traffic-related CO emissions and shows the below-average importance of the transport sector. The emissions calculations of the sector comparison are based on the fuels sold in Austria. The emissions from the transport sector therefore also include those emissions that arise from fuel sold domestically but transported abroad. The transport sector includes the following areas: road transport, rail transport, shipping, national air transport and compressors for gas pipelines. Agricultural and forestry transport as well as the military are included in the household and small consumer sector.

Figure 3: Sector comparison of HC emissions in Austria [6]
 
DEVELOPMENT / FORECAST for GERMANY(click for more / less information)

As in the case of CO, the HC emissions from German road traffic - shown in Figure 4 and Figure 5 - Developments comparable to Austria. In the period from 1990 to 2030, emissions in the passenger car sector were reduced by 98.3%. The reduction in the commercial vehicle sector is 61.7%. The slump in commercial vehicle emissions in 2009 resulted from taking into account the effects of the economic crisis.

Figure 4: Development and forecast of car HC emissions in Germany in kt / a

Figure 5: Development and forecast of the HC Germany commercial vehicle in Germany in kt / a

The in Figure 6 The sector comparison shown for Germany confirms the decrease in traffic-related HC emissions and shows the below-average importance of the transport sector. The emissions calculations of the sector comparison are based on the fuels sold in Germany. The emissions from the transport sector therefore also include those emissions that arise from fuel sold domestically but transported abroad. The transport sector includes the following areas: road transport, rail transport, shipping, national air transport and compressors for gas pipelines. Agricultural and forestry transport as well as the military are included in the household and small consumer sector.

Figure 6: Sector comparison of HC emissions in Germany [7]
DEVELOPMENT / FORECAST for EU27(click for more / less information)

A sector comparison over time over the years 1990 to 2007 is only possible for CH4 but not for NMHC due to the partially incomplete data from the EU27 member states. Figure 7 gives the course of the CH4 emissions: It should be noted that traffic is a source of minor importance. Figure 8 shows the current weighting of NMHC emissions for the individual sectors for 2007. It can be stated here that passenger transport makes a small contribution with 8%.

Figure 7: Sector comparison of CH4 emissions in the EU27 [8]

Figure 8: Sector comparison of NMHC emissions in the EU27 for 2007 [9]

Important information on Figure 8:
A complete EU-27 time series 1990-2007 of key category data cannot be presented due to non-reporting of sectoral data by several Member States.
Emissions from '3 D 2 - Domestic solvent use including fungicides' were reported as being included elsewhere (IE) for the following Member States: Cyprus, Denmark, Italy, Luxembourg, Malta, the Netherlands, Romania, Sweden, the United Kingdom, ( 2001–2007), Bulgaria, the Czech Republic, Finland, Greece, Hungary, Lithuania, Slovenia (2001–2006) and Poland (2001–2005). For Bulgaria, 2007 emissions were not estimated (NE). For Slovakia (2001–2007) emissions estimates were not applicable (NA).
Emissions from '3 A 3 - Other coating applications' were reported as being included elsewhere (IE) for Finland, Sweden, Latvia, Malta (2001-2007) and Slovenia (2007). For Austria, France, the United Kingdom (2001-2007) and Hungary (2007) emission estimates were not applicable (NA). Emissions in Spain (2001) were not estimated (NE).
Emissions from '3C Chemical Products' were reported as being included elsewhere (IE) for Greece (2004-2007), Hungary, (2001, 2003) and Malta (2001-2005, 2007). The Netherlands reported emissions as not occurring for 2001-2007 and Hungary for 2004-2006. Hungary reported 2007 emissions as not applicable. Emissions for Lithuania (2001–2007) and Malta (2006) were not estimated (NE).

BIBLIOGRAPHY (click for more / less information)

[1] Lower, e.g .: Lecture notes for lecture 315.018 - Basic features of internal combustion engines. Vienna: Institute for Internal Combustion Engines and Automotive Engineering at the Vienna University of Technology, 2006. B06006.
[2] Senate Department for Urban Development: Digital Environmental Atlas Berlin. Berlin.de - Senate Department for Urban Development. [Online] 2008. [Quotation from: November 14, 2008.] http://stadtentwicklung.berlin.de/umwelt/umweltatlas/dinh_03.htm.
[3] IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change): Climate Change 2007 - The Physical Science Basis, Contribution of Working Group I to the Fourth Assessment Report of the IPCC. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2008. ISBN 978 0521 88009-1.
[4] Kippel, P., et al .: Reducing high levels of air pollution on roads. Proceedings of the 465th FGU seminar "Traffic-related pollution by benzene, diesel soot and nitrogen oxides in urban street areas". Berlin: s.n., 1997.
[5] Kalker, U .: Health assessment of the traffic-related pollutants nitrogen oxides, benzene and diesel soot particles. Urban Hygiene Forum 44. Frankfurt: City Health Office Frankfurt - Department of Environmental Medicine and Hygiene, 1993.
[6] Anderl, A. et al .: Emission trends 1990-2007 - overview of the Austrian polluters (data status 2009). Vienna: Umweltbundesamt GmbH, 2009. Report REP-0234, ISBN 978-3-99004-033-1.
[7] Federal Environment Agency: Emissions development 1990 - 2007, greenhouse gases, including extended evaluation and equivalent emissions of greenhouse gases. Dessau: Federal Environment Agency, 2009.
[8] Fernandez, R. et al: Annual European Community greenhouse gas inventory 1990-2007 and inventory report 2009 (Version 27 May 2009). Copenhagen: European Environment Agency, 2009. Technical report No 04/2009.
[9] EEA: European Community emission inventory report 1990–2007 under the UNECE Convention on Long-range Transboundary Air Pollution (LRTAP). Copenhagen: European Environment Agency, 2009. EEA Technical report No 8/2009, ISBN 978-92-9213-005-3.

 
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