What are incentives in business
An “activated motive” is a “motive for observable behavior that has become behavior-relevant through the effect of certain perceived stimulus conditions”. “The interaction of different activated motives that determine the behavior from the drive side in a specific situation” (Rosenstiel) is called the motivation.
The activation of motives leads to a willingness to behave as needs or urgency experiences. These trigger expectations, from which the strength of the behavioral intention (behavioral intention) is determined. These expectations relate in particular to how suitable the incentive situation is considered to be for achieving the behavioral outcome and how high the degree and probability of the motive satisfaction that can be achieved with it are assessed.
- Expectations are shaped by previous direct or indirect experiences with motive satisfaction. The behavior, i.e. the process of being active, is influenced by the behavioral intention as well as by
· The skills as personal variables, as well
· The objective working conditions determined as situational variables. The process of service provision takes place in the area of the encounter between person and situation.
According to the model of emotional elicitation developed by David C. McClelland, external stimuli can motivate behavior if they can be linked to stimulus situations that were previously accompanied by pleasant or unpleasant affects and therefore evoke the expectation of reliving the previous state can.
The behavior can then take the form of approaching or withdrawing from the situation, depending on the nature of the affects.
2. In management, incentives are those circumstances of a company that are perceived by the person concerned and activate motives in them. This can only happen through influences that the person concerned perceives as incentives. Basically, four groups of incentives can be distinguished:
(2) Financial incentives: The motivational effectiveness of financial incentives can vary widely. In particular, the following motifs can be activated:
The need for money as a means of satisfying basic and security needs as well as other motives outside the company,
The need for recognition if a status symbol is seen in the salary,
· The need for money as an end in itself.
The behavioral effect of the financial incentives also depends on the extent to which other incentives are given.
(2) Social incentives: Social incentives arise on the one hand in the relationship between supervisor and employee, on the other hand within - working groups in relation to one another. In both cases, social contacts can serve to satisfy contact needs. From the point of view of the superior, social contacts can be used as a means to influence the performance behavior of employees, but also to satisfy power motives, both with oneself and with employees. Social contacts in work groups with monotonous working methods can gain weighty importance, as compensation for the lack of satisfaction of other motives.
(3) Task content: Incentives from the work as such arise in particular in connection with the degree of specialization and the importance attached to the task. The importance that the employee attaches to a task is in turn related to his or her existing or desired skills. The work content is able to activate the needs for activity, performance, social validity and self-realization; but only if the task is perceived as interesting and significant. The content of the task is particularly motivating for people who have intrinsic motives.
(4) Opportunities for development: Incentives that can activate motives for self-development are, in particular, opportunities for further training, opportunities for advancement, the degree of autonomy in the workplace and the demands placed on personal skills from the task.
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