Gasoline fumes are lighter than air
Examples of particular hazards caused by gases and vapors in enclosed spaces in wastewater systems
Liquids, gases and vapors can be introduced into enclosed spaces of wastewater systems through impermissible discharges or in accidents or arise as a result of chemical or biological reactions. The presence of these substances can be dangerous. As a rule, these are dangers from:
Lack of oxygen (O2-Defect)
All additionally introduced gases and vapors reduce the oxygen content in the atmosphere of the a. A ..
|Concentration of O2 in the air||Symptom / effect|
|20.9% by volume||Concentration in the unpolluted fresh air|
|<18 vol .-%||Harmful to health|
|<10% by volume||Less than 10% by volume of oxygen, consciousness disappears without warning. Brain damage and death follow in minutes if resuscitation cannot be immediate.|
All vapors from flammable liquids are heavier than air.
|Concentration of gasoline vapors in the air||Symptom / effect|
|~ 0.6% by volume||Lower explosion limit (LEL)|
|~ 8 vol .-%||Upper explosion limit (UEL)|
|500 to 1,000 ppm||Irritation of the respiratory tract, headache, dizziness, nausea, confusion or even unconsciousness|
Carbon dioxide (CO2)
Carbon dioxide is heavier than air.
|Concentration of CO2 in the air||Symptom / effect|
|0.03 vol%||Share in the unpolluted fresh air|
|0.07% by volume||City air|
|0.1-0.3% by volume||High values in offices|
|0.5% by volume / 5,000 ppm||Occupational exposure limit (AGW)|
|approx. 1 - 4% by volume||Irritation of the mucous membranes, acceleration of breathing, rise in blood pressure, excitement, palpitations, headache|
|approx. 5 - 9% by volume||Headache, ringing in the ears (tinnitus), palpitations, rise in blood pressure, mental excitement, dizziness, drowsiness|
|> 9 vol .-%||Unconsciousness after 5 - 10 minutes of inhalation|
|Over 10% by volume||Paralysis of the respiratory center, narcosis, death|
Methane is lighter than air.
|Concentration of CH4 in the air||Symptom / effect|
|4.4 vol%||Lower explosion limit (LEL)|
|17 vol%||Upper explosion limit (UEL)|
Hydrogen sulfide (H.2S)
|Concentration of H2S in the air in ppm||Symptom / effect|
|0,003 – 0,02||Odor perceptibility|
|3 – 10||clearly unpleasant odor|
|20 – 30||strong rotten egg smell|
|5||Occupational exposure limit|
|50 – 100||Irritation of the respiratory tract|
|100 – 200||Loss of smell|
|250 – 500||Toxic pulmonary edema, cyanosis, coughing up blood, pneumonia|
|500||Headache, uncoordinated movements, dizziness, stimulation of breathing, poor memory, loss of consciousness ("knockdown")|
|500 – 1 000||Respiratory arrest, immediate collapse, severe nerve damage, arrhythmic heart activity, death|
Digester gas is a gas mixture (e.g. from CH4, CO2, H2S, O2, H2), which can occur in a wide variety of compositions. The density of digester gas is almost only dependent on the ratio CH4/ CO2 certainly. It can be both heavier and lighter than air. In the case of digester gas, the effects of the individual components occur in combination. There is currently no detailed knowledge about the combined effects on humans.
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