Why can't sound waves travel in liquid?
Hörbahn - that's how we hear
Our actual hearing organ is located in the inner ear - the so-called snail (cochlea). Here the auditory sensations are perceived and transmitted to the brain via the 8th cranial nerve.
The sound waves picked up by the auricle are conducted through the ear canal and set the eardrum vibrating. These are transferred to the ossicular chain (hammer, anvil and stapes) and in this way reach the oval window of the inner ear: This is where the footplate of the stapes opens and conducts the sound vibrations to the perilymph of the ascending upper duct (Scala vestibuli) the snail continues. The vibrations run through the lymph fluid as waves up to the tip of the snail. From there they walk through a connecting opening through the descending, lower passage (Scala tympani) down to the round window, where they finally ebb away. Due to the opposing wave movements in the perilymph, the basilar membrane on the middle cochlea is also set in motion. This leads to the fact that the fine hairs of the hair cells on the basilar membrane are bent. This mechanical bending stimulus excites the hair cells and creates an electrical potential. It gets to the nerve fibers under the inner ear and then to the auditory nerve, which runs along with the balance nerve to the brain (Vestibulocochlear nerve), forwarded. It transmits the sound sensations to the hearing center in the temporal lobe of the cerebrum.
This is where the process of understanding the acoustic information begins: the transmitted sound sensations are compared with existing memories and experiences in a complex network of nerve cells and "translated" into language.
Hearing frequency - what frequencies do we hear on?
In order to be heard, the sound vibrations received must reach a certain intensity: the healthy ear can only perceive sound waves with a frequency between 0 or 20 and 16,000 up to a maximum of 20,000 hertz. Frequencies that are below or above can no longer trigger sound sensations in the inner ear. The ear is most sensitive in the range between 500 and 6,000 Hertz - we can hear these frequencies best; this is also where the frequency range of human speech lies.
If the volume of a tone increases while the frequency remains the same, the basilar membrane is increasingly set in motion. This causes the hair cells to become more bent and irritated. The number of electrical potentials increases and the sound is perceived as louder by the hearing center.
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