History of interior design

History of interior design

The interior design characterizes the living ideas of different style epochs. These include Greek and Roman antiquity, Romanesque, Gothic and Renaissance. It continues with the interior design in the Baroque andclassicism. Then came the Biedermeier furniture style, the Wilhelminian era, Art Nouveau and Art Deco.

Antiquity is divided into Greek and Roman antiquity.
It ranges from around 1200 BC. BC to AD 600

Greek antiquity
It covers a period from around 800 BC. BC to 146 BC Chr.
Ancient Greece still had Egyptian models. The furniture was very simple, chairs, stools, loungers, tables, some of which were portable, and chests for storage were used. Chair legs resembled animal feet, the bed was covered with leather belts and the headboard was always raised.
The furniture was made of wood, stone and bronze. These were decorated with paint or inlays made of ivory.

Roman antiquity
It goes back to the 7th century AD. Much was adopted from ancient Greece. One house had a small courtyard with a water basin. The floors were made of stone or ceramic, often decorated with mosaic pictures. The walls were painted with frescoes and the ceilings were beamed. Due to the lack of wood, wooden furniture was a luxury. There was mostly furniture made of bronze or stone. There were small side tables, seating furniture with turned feet and leather seats, wicker armchairs and chests for storage. You didn't know dining tables, you ate lying down.

The Romanesque
Romanesque is the architectural style from the 10th to the middle of the 12th century. In the Romanesque period, the church was the center of social life. They were also used as shelters. The poor people owned huts made of straw, wood or clay. There were only simple stools, benches, tables, beds, chests and cupboards.

The Gothic
It replaced the Romanesque architectural style and lasted from the 12th to the beginning of the 16th century. Wood played a major role in the Gothic period. The furniture became lighter and thinner. Wood paneling on ceilings and walls was popular. Now there were fewer chests than half-height cupboards. Ornaments in the Gothic were pointed arches, folds and crab shapes.

This style period lasted from the 14th to the 16th century. In the Renaissance there were main rooms such as the entrance hall, dining room and lounges. There was a house altar. There was an oven in the winter dining room, and the summer dining room was light and spacious.
Now there was the secretary, a writing cabinet with a desk pad that could be opened. The old Gothic furniture was given new ornaments. The seating furniture became more comfortable, the “ladies chair” had a trapezoidal seat and wide armrests. So it was possible to sit with skirts of large volume.
The walls were painted, decorated with leather wallpaper or fabric. There was the two-story closet, canopy beds, the scissor armchair, board stool, chairs, and stools. There were simple tables with loose tops on trestles or round, hexagonal or octagonal tables.

This style epoch between Renaissance and Classicism lasted from 1575 to 1770. Baroque furniture showed splendid decorations with gold and curved shapes. There were various rooms with special functions as well as state rooms. The furniture was decorated with flowers, tendrils and figures from mythology. You worked with materials such as mother-of-pearl, ebony or rosewood, including gilding. Marble, tapestries, and velvet and silk upholstery were characteristic. There were padded armchairs and inlaid tables Gemstones- or wooden.

It covers the period from 1770 to 1870. Classicism was a form of expression for the upper middle class. It was based on the classical ancient architecture of Greece, Italy and Egypt. Classicism was characterized by strict, clear forms. The furniture was made of wood such as mahogany, ash, yew and walnut.

Biedermeier is the period from 1815 to 1848, the Congress of Vienna until the beginning of the bourgeois revolution. In the Biedermeier style, the furniture is functional and not just representative. They are cozy, have simple or no decorations, but the grain of the wood comes into its own.
The table was important for the whole family, it was mostly round and had a heavy metatarsus. There were also chests of drawers, display cabinets with glass doors, delicate chairs and sofas.
The walls were decorated with patterned and floral wallpaper.

The early days
This is a style period from 1840 to 1873. This furniture was very angular with straight basic shapes. The furniture also had turned legs or ball feet.

The Art Nouveau
The Art Nouveau developed 1890 until the beginning of the first world war 1914. With Art Nouveau one wanted to create something “never seen before”. Expensive and noble material was used to make exclusive items.
Doorknobs were made of brass in the floral style. Ceramic tiles had colorful patterns.

art deco
Art Deco has its origins in France, 1925 a first exhibition was organized on the initiative of leading French artists in Paris carried out. This style period lasted from 1920 to 1940.
The elegance of forms was combined with the preciousness of materials and color intensity. Noble woods like ebony and materials like tortoiseshell and embossed, painted leather were used here.

Today the furniture is plain and clear, but it is functional.