How is the Anthrax disease contracted

Coal disease

A vaccine exists against anthrax. © DR

Anthrax (Anthrax) is an infectious disease caused by the bacterium Bacillus anthracis.

Transmission of anthrax

Ducharbon is a bacterium, Bacillus anthracis, whose spores can survive in the wild for several years or even decades, waiting to be ingested by the next host. Coal is primarily a herbivorous disease, although other mammals and some birds may have been known to develop the disease.

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In humans, transmission occurs directly or indirectly from infected animals or through occupational exposure to infected or contaminated animal products. The only way to reduce the incidence is to control this disease in farm animals. There is no documented case of human-to-human transmission. The consequences of this disease in animal health and medicine can be catastrophic.

This disease still affects animals and people in most of sub-Saharan Africa and Asia, several southern European countries, America and parts of Australia. Sporadic anthrax outbreaks occur in herbivores in other countries.

Symptoms of anthrax

There are three forms of charcoal in humans:

  • cutaneous form, contracted by cutaneous inoculation of a spore at the level of a cut or exorcation (formation of a macula, then possibly edema and severe fever);
  • the intestinal form, which is contracted as a result of ingesting contaminated food, mainly smoked meat (esophageal or intestinal lesions, or poisoning);
  • Lung form, parinhalation of airborne spores (flu-like symptoms, then respiratory failure, hypotension and sepsis).

The cutaneous form represents at least 95% of the cases recorded in humans in the world. These three forms of charcoal can cause death if not treated quickly.

Treatment of anthrax

Antibiotic therapy usually results in a phlebotomy of the person (or animal) infected with anthrax bacteria if used before the first symptoms or soon after. It can also be used prophylactically in asymptomatic individuals believed to have been exposed to spores.

Anthrax prevention

Anthrax prophylaxis in humans and animals is based on disease control measures for farm animals in endemic areas, such as the safe disposal of anthrax and the vaccination of endangered herds. The most efficient type of disposal is incineration, which is carried out in such a way that thermal sterilization of the soil below is achieved. In practice, the conditions in many endemic countries mean that these simple control measures are difficult to implement. In the industrialized countries, prevention is based on hygienic measures in animal husbandry and industry.

There are vaccines for animals and humans. In humans, however, their use should be restricted to risk groups, such as they are occupationally exposed, and some members of the military.

There is no need to isolate or quarantine patients. Dressings and other contaminated materials should be removed, preferably by incineration.